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Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians

Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians, edited by Richard Bett

By far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of epistemology and logic, this work critically reviews the pretensions of non-sceptical philosophers, to have discovered methods for determining the truth, either through direct observation or by inference from the observed to the unobserved. A fine example of the Pyrrhonist sceptical method at […]


Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories and Applications

Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories and Applications

Physicists think they have discovered the top quark. Biologists believe in evolution. But what precisely constitutes evidence for such claims, and why? Scientists often disagree with one another over whether or to what extent some evidence counts in favor of a theory because they are operating with different concepts of scientific evidence. These concepts need […]


Science Rules: A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Science Rules: A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Is there a universal set of rules for discovering and testing scientific hypotheses? Since the birth of modern science, philosophers, scientists, and other thinkers have wrestled with this fundamental question of scientific practice. Efforts to devise rigorous methods for obtaining scientific knowledge include the twenty-one rules Descartes proposed in his Rules for the Direction of the […]


The Book of Evidence

The Book of Evidence

What is required for something to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this fascinating, elegantly written work, distinguished philosopher of science Peter Achinstein explores this question, rejecting typical philosophical and statistical theories of evidence. He claims these theories are much too weak to give scientists what they want—a good reason to believe—and, in some cases, […]


Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy

Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy

Richard Bett presents a ground-breaking study of Pyrrho of Elis, who lived in the late fourth and early third centuries BC and is the supposed originator of Greek scepticism. In the absence of surviving works by Pyrrho, scholars have tended to treat his thought as essentially the same as the long subsequent sceptical tradition which […]


Wittgenstein, Mind and Meaning: Towards a Social Conception of Mind

Wittgenstein, Mind and Meaning

Wittgenstein, Mind and Meaning offers a provocative re-reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language and mind, and explores the tensions between Wittgenstein’s ideas and contemporary cognitivist conceptions of the mental. This book addresses both Wittgenstein’s later works as well as contemporary issues in philosophy of mind. It provides fresh insight into the later Wittgenstein and raises […]


Kant’s Final Synthesis: An Essay on the Opus Postumum

Kant's Final Synthesis

This is the first book in English devoted entirely to Kant’s Opus postumum and its place in the Kantian oeuvre. Over the last few decades, the importance of this text for our understanding of Kant’s philosophy has emerged with increasing clarity. Although Kant began it in order to solve a relatively minor problem within his philosophy, his […]


Problems of Knowledge: A Critical Introduction to Epistemology

Problems of Knowledge: A Critical Introduction to Epistemology

What is epistemology or “the theory of knowledge?” What is it really about? Why does it matter? What makes theorizing about knowledge “philosophical?” Why do some philosophers argue that epistemology—perhaps even philosophy itself—is dead? In this succinct, exciting, and original introduction to epistemology, Michael Williams explains and criticizes philosophical theories of the nature, limits, methods, […]


Sextus Empiricus: Against the Ethicists

Sextus Empiricus: Against the Ethicists

This volume contains a new translation of Against the Ethicists, together with an introduction and extensive commentary. Those who have discussed this work in the past have tended to underestimate it, regarding its main position as essentially the same as that of Sextus’s better-known Outlines of Pyrrhonism. Richard Bett shows that this text proposes a distinct and previously […]


Groundless Belief: An Essay on the Possibility of Epistemology

Groundless Belief

Inspired by the work of Wilfrid Sellars, Michael Williams launches an all-out attack on what he calls “phenomenalism,” the idea that our knowledge of the world rests on a perceptual or experiential foundation. The point of this wider-than-normal usage of the term “phenomenalism,” according to which even some forms of direct realism deserve to be […]