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Evidence, Explanation, and Realism: Essays in Philosophy of Science

Evidence, Explanation, and Realism: Essays in Philosophy of Science by Peter Achinstein

The essays in this volume address three fundamental questions in the philosophy of science: What is required for some fact to be evidence for a scientific hypothesis? What does it mean to say that a scientist or a theory explains a phenomenon? Should scientific theories that postulate “unobservable” entities such as electrons be construed realistically […]


The Routledge Companion to 19th Century Philosophy

The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy

The 19th century is a period of stunning philosophical originality, characterized by radical engagement with the emerging human sciences. Often overshadowed by 20th-century philosophy, which sought to reject some of its central tenets, the philosophers of the 19th century have re-emerged as profoundly important figures. The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy is an outstanding survey […]


The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism

The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism, edited by Richard Bett

This volume offers a comprehensive survey of the main periods, schools, and individual proponents of scepticism in the ancient Greek and Roman world. The contributors examine the major developments chronologically and historically, ranging from the early antecedents of scepticism to the Pyrrhonist tradition. They address the central philosophical and interpretive problems surrounding the sceptics’ ideas […]


Blind Obedience: Paradox and Learning in the Later Wittgenstein

Blind Obedience

There is considerable debate amongst philosophers as to the basic philosophical problem Wittgenstein is attempting to solve in Philosophical Investigations. In this bold and original work, Meredith Williams argues that it is the problem of “normative similarity.” In Blind Obedience Williams demonstrates how Wittgenstein criticizes traditional, representationalist theories of language by employing the ‘master/novice’ distinction of the learner, […]


Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians

Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians, edited by Richard Bett

By far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of epistemology and logic, this work critically reviews the pretensions of non-sceptical philosophers, to have discovered methods for determining the truth, either through direct observation or by inference from the observed to the unobserved. A fine example of the Pyrrhonist sceptical method at […]


Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories and Applications

Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories and Applications

Physicists think they have discovered the top quark. Biologists believe in evolution. But what precisely constitutes evidence for such claims, and why? Scientists often disagree with one another over whether or to what extent some evidence counts in favor of a theory because they are operating with different concepts of scientific evidence. These concepts need […]


Science Rules: A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Science Rules: A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Is there a universal set of rules for discovering and testing scientific hypotheses? Since the birth of modern science, philosophers, scientists, and other thinkers have wrestled with this fundamental question of scientific practice. Efforts to devise rigorous methods for obtaining scientific knowledge include the twenty-one rules Descartes proposed in his Rules for the Direction of the […]


The Book of Evidence

The Book of Evidence

What is required for something to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this fascinating, elegantly written work, distinguished philosopher of science Peter Achinstein explores this question, rejecting typical philosophical and statistical theories of evidence. He claims these theories are much too weak to give scientists what they want—a good reason to believe—and, in some cases, […]


Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy

Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy

Richard Bett presents a ground-breaking study of Pyrrho of Elis, who lived in the late fourth and early third centuries BC and is the supposed originator of Greek scepticism. In the absence of surviving works by Pyrrho, scholars have tended to treat his thought as essentially the same as the long subsequent sceptical tradition which […]


Wittgenstein, Mind and Meaning: Towards a Social Conception of Mind

Wittgenstein, Mind and Meaning

Wittgenstein, Mind and Meaning offers a provocative re-reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language and mind, and explores the tensions between Wittgenstein’s ideas and contemporary cognitivist conceptions of the mental. This book addresses both Wittgenstein’s later works as well as contemporary issues in philosophy of mind. It provides fresh insight into the later Wittgenstein and raises […]